Where does Fertilization take place in Human Female
The female reproductive system progressively ceases producing the female hormones required for the reproductive cycle to function after menopause. Menstrual cycles may become erratic and eventually end at this point. A woman is termed menopausal when her menstrual cycles stop after a year.
The internal reproductive organs include:
- The vagina is a channel that connects the cervix (the bottom part of the uterus) to the outside world. The birth canal is another name for it.
- Womb (uterus): The uterus is a pear-shaped hollow organ that houses a developing foetus. The uterus is separated into two parts: the cervix, which is the bottom section of the uterus that opens into the vaginal canal, and the corpus, which is the main body of the uterus. The corpus can easily expand to accommodate a growing child. Sperm can enter and menstrual blood can escape through a canal in the cervix.
- The ovaries are little oval-shaped glands on either side of the uterus that produce eggs. The ovaries are responsible for the production of eggs and hormones.
- The ova (egg cells) travel from the ovaries to the uterus through the fallopian tubes, which are narrow tubes attached to the upper part of the uterus. In most cases, an egg is fertilised by a sperm in the fallopian tubes. The fertilised egg then travels to the uterus and attaches itself into the uterine lining.
What happens during the menstrual cycle?
Females of reproductive age (between 11 and 16 years old) go through hormonal activity cycles that last about a month. The term menstrual cycle comes from the word menstru, which meaning “monthly.” Every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a possible pregnancy, whether she intends to have one or not. Menstruation refers to the uterine lining shedding on a regular basis. The days that they observe vaginal bleeding are referred to as “period,” “menstrual,” or “cycle” by many women. The average menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases. These phases include:
The follicular phase (development of the egg)
The ovulatory phase (release of the egg)
The luteal phase (hormone levels decrease if the egg does not implant)
The first day of your period is the commencement of this phase. The following events occur during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle:
- The brain releases two hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which go through the bloodstream to the ovaries.
- The hormones drive the growth of roughly 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries, each in its own “shell,” called a follicle.
- These hormones (FSH and LH) also cause a rise in the synthesis of oestrogen, which is a feminine hormone.
- When oestrogen levels rise, it turns off the production of follicle-stimulating hormone, like a switch. The body’s tight hormonal balance allows it to limit the number of follicles that will prepare eggs for release.
- One follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and matures as the follicular period proceeds. All of the other follicles in the group are suppressed by one dominating follicle. As a result, they cease to grow and eventually perish. Estrogen is still produced by the dominant follicle.
The ovulatory phase (ovulation) normally starts approximately 14 days after the follicular phase begun, however this can vary. Between the follicular and luteal phases is the ovulatory phase. After ovulation, most women will have a menstrual cycle 10 to 16 days later. The following occurrences take place during this phase:
- The increase in luteinizing hormone produced by the brain is triggered by the rise in oestrogen from the dominant follicle.
- The dominant follicle releases its egg from the ovary as a result of this.
- The egg is collected by finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes as it is released (a process termed ovulation) (fimbriae). The egg is swept into the tube by the fimbriae.
- Many women will detect an increase in egg white cervical mucus one to five days before ovulation. This mucus is the vaginal secretion that aids in the capture and nourishment of sperm on their way to fertilise the egg.
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